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Nohchiin yoozan latiiniin versin elpash niisayazdaran, niisadiesharan a baquonash

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NOHCHIIN MATTAX NIISAYAZDAR

(Nohchiin yoozan latiiniin versin elpash niisayazdaran, niisadiesharan a baquonash).

 

Deshanxalhie.

 

Nohchiin mettan yooza latiinin buht’ex doluchu kheenax cynan niisayazdaran baquonash foneetikan (aeznin) principt’ex khittiina khilla. Iza du shuna ma-khazzara yazdesh khilla boohurg. Latiinin yoza cu principca yazdan aettu bolush khilar a, nohchiin yoozan moutt shien grammatikan bashhalashkax qhocchush tellina ca khilar a baxanash khilla I princip koertie lacarna.

 

Culla t’aexa wayn yooza kirillan elpiin buht’e daeqqhicha, niisayazdaran koerta pricip khiica yiezza, hunda aelcha cu yoozanuo aettu ca bytu foneetikan buht’ex niisayazdaran baquonash khittuo. Cu kheenax duena wayn mettan niisayazdarex koerta princip khilla dxahoettina lielash erg morfologin princip yu, wyshta aelcha deshadaaquoyn princip.

 

Bilgaldaqqha dieza, koertex aezniin princip yoluchu kheenax a, deshadaaquoyn princip yoluchu kheenax a caerca cxaena xoolie xaezzhina lieluosh qhiyolu principash a khilla khilar, hunda aelcha eqqa cxaena princip t’ex niisayazdaran baquonash khittayoyla dac. Ysh yu shuna maejnan (semantikan) princip, buht’iera-jaadatan (tradicin, ya istorin) pricip a.

 

T’aqqha tahana nohchiin yoozan latiiniin versi qhuollarca, cynan niisayazdaran baquoniin koerta princip aeznin buht’e yuhayaaluo yiezash khilar bilgala du. Koertachu xoolex deehii, doocii muqa elpash, shalha muqa a, muqaza a elpash  yazdarca yoezna baquonash yu ysh. Culla a sawnaha mettige xaezzhina maejna khiicalo elpiin baquonash a yu, qheechareh tardella aeznash yazdaran baquonash a yu.

 

Khila ma diezzara khilcha-m hincaleera nohchiin yoozan mettan xashtash qhoochush dan koerta princip khilla dxahuotta ezash erg buht’iera-jaadatan princip yu aella shekuo yac san. Amma wayn muott qhocchush tellina cahilaruo i aettu ca bytu tahana. Cundela jilmanuo qhosshush zhoepash dalaza yolu baqhuonash ca huecush hincalca ma khillara ca yiticha yeera yac cqachunna.  Tallaza a t’oehulajillarca qaestash yolu cxa-shi baquo bien khira yac wayn buht’iera-jaadatan principca khuottiina. Ysh cxa az qheechunah tardalarca yoezna baquonash yu.

 

Latiinin yooza shen elpash yazdarex oersiin yoozanieh qaestash  bashhalash yolush du. Ya kirillan, ya latiiniin yoozaniin syrtash (grafeemash) nohchiin mattana oeshu massuo elpash gayta toe’ush das. Cundeela shinne xoolex nohchiin yooza qhullush shalha elpash ca lieliicha ca doolu. Amma ocu shinnie yoozanashkax shalha elpash khittuor bashhala yolush du. Oersiin mattax sanna y-na t’e muqa elpash tuoharca qhoellina «я, ю,ё» shalha elpash dac latiinin yoozanex. Culla sawnaha latiiniin yoozanex cxa elp shina maejnex lielash a khylu. Ishta qhiyolu bashhalash a yu. Cundeela oersin yozanie marzabella waynah ocu bashhaleh buola biezar bu.

 

Gush ma-khillara wayn muott tallarca t’eban bieza buolh shortta a bysu niisayazdaran baquonash khittuorex. Delax a hara san eghaza qinxiegam a nohchiin muott qhi’uorex roghiera cxa ghulch yu-qha Daala muqhlax!

 

Tqa hinca san lieramie wezharii, yizharii, way diicinachunna t’iera sxa hoqhu nohchiin yoozan latiinin versin elpash niisayazdaran baquonash yawzuetar yu as shuna. 

 

Nohchiin yoozan latiinin versin elpash:

 

 

A a   Ae ae   B b  C c  C’ c’  Ch ch  Ch’ ch’  D d  E e  F f                          G g  Gh gh  H h  (azkhaaduoran xaerk)  I i  J j  K k  K’ k’          L l  M m  N n  O o  Oe oe  P p  P’p’  Q q  Qh qh  R r  S s                    Sh sh  T t   T’ t’  U u  Ue ue  V v  W w  X x  Y y  Z z  Zh zh

 

 

Elpash niisayazdaran a, niisadiesharan a

baquonash.

 

 

 

I. Muqa elpash niisayazdar.

 

 

1. Dooca muqa aeznash cxana eplaca yazdo,

tqa deeha muqa aeznasn shina elpaca yazdo:

 

a (а), aa (а:), ae (аь /daa’iman deeha/),

e (э), ee (э:),

i (и), ii (и:), ie (иэ),

o (о), oo (о:), oe (оь /daaiman deeha/),

u (у), uu(у:), uo (уо), ue (уь /deehanig/),

y (уь /doocanig/).

 

Tidamie ieca:

Shina elpaca yazdesh dolu k’eeda aeznash a (ae, oe, ue) a,

shalha’aeznash (ie, uo) a deeha muqa aeznash laaralush du.

 

2. Duosh yyxxex muqa -a, -e, -o ysh dooca delax a, deeha delax a da’iman cxaena elpaca yazdo: 

al, ala, ata, atta, ela, elp, onda, oram.

 

2-a. Cu baquonna k’elacadohu -i, -u, -y.

 

2-b. Dashna yyxxeera -a, -e, -o qewlinchu sloogex dooca, ya ahdeeha doeshu (ah, al, alsam, an, aqhtarg, ardang, arc, ars, arz, atta, azdalar, elcha, elp, emgar, eppaz, epsar, er, erna, erz, eskar, ewla, ewsara, occham, olla, omra, onda, oqhluo, orca, orshuot, oyla), yillinchu sloogex deeha doeshu (acha, aga, aghuo, aha, arie, ala, alapa, alasha, aluu, amal, amat, aqari, aqhalla, aqhar, ata, echig, eghaza, ekam, ela, enash, eqa, eqha, era, oga, olalla, oram, oza).   

 

Tidamie laaca.

Ocu baquonna yuqaradawlu cxadolu t’e’iecna deshnash:

adam, almaz /yeeshap/, arqhuo, asar /jatqam/, ezar,  oba /bart/, obarg.

Ichta ocu baquonna yuqaradoolu cxa-naggax dolu c’ena nohchiin duosh a:

axa, oxu; axar.

Doolax a, xazhuoran a c’ermetdeshnash ocu baquonna k’elacadoohu:

asa, axa, asha, ocu.

Ysh muuha doeshu dagax kha’a dieza.

 

3. Shalha’aeznash (diftongash) -ie, -uo khezachax massanxa yazdo:

iedan, iegha, diesha, liela, chaqqhie, qaylie, uoza, uoxa, duoha, kuoka, luo, muo.   

 

II. Muqaza shalha elpash niisayazdar.

 

Muqaza shalha elp itt du.

Caareh phi’ ghoenan h-ca yazdesh du: ch, gh, qh, sh, zh.

Phi’ azkhaaduoran xaerkaca yazdesh du: c’, ch’, k’, p’, t’.

 

1. Shalha elp shalha daelcha xalhara elp bien shozza ca yazdo: chuccha, ghagghanex, qhoqqha, shissha, t’ett’a, yaett’a.

 

2. Deshnashkax ghoenan h-ca yazdesh dolu shalha elpashna t’iexa qhin cxa -h nislax iza shaa ma-darra -h doeshu:

Nashha, bashhalla.

 

3. Azkhaaduoran xaerkaca yazdesh dolu shalha elpashna t’aexa dooghush -q delax, i elpash azkhaaduoran xaerk yoocush yazdo: c’accqa, c’accqa; lachqa, lachqa; jatqa, jatqa; latqam, latqam.

 

 

 

III. Ghiila elp -h niisayazdar.

 

Hoqhu nohchiin abatan latiiniin versex poziiceshkax maejna khuecu  ghiila shi’ elp du. Ysh -h du, -y du.

 

Pehashkara doeshu –h du (kirillan yoozanex –х1), bagara doeshu –h a du (kirillan yoozanex -х). Ishta ca doeshu –h a du. Cuo shalha elpash qhullush ghullaqh do, cundeela cynah ghullaqhan –h olu. Iza shalha elpashkax shoolagha elp khylu:

ch, ch’, gh, qh, sh, zh.

 

1. Doush xalhaa yazdina -h daa’iman pehashkara doeshu:

hawa’, huoz, huord, husam, hymalg.

 

2. Duosh xalhaa bagara doeshu -h pehashkara doeshu h-nah qastuorxaama cunna xalhaa -k yazdo:

khaza, kharc, khi, khorbaz, khu, khudar, khynzhar.

 

3. Doush yuqqex a, chaqqengax a da’iman deqqa -h yazdo, hunda aelcha noxchiin deshnashkax duosh xalhaa bien maejan ca khuecu pegashkara doeshu h-nuo:

Allah, baaham, chahchuor, daahar, guonaha, jaahar, kheehuo, kholhaz, kherh, lahhara, mah, nah, payhamar , shalhuo, tahana, warh, yalh.

 

 

 3-a. Duosh yuqqex a, chaqqengax a pehashkara -h doeshu deshnash (ysh duqha a dac, t’e’iecna deshnash a du, teeraxdeshnash doocursh) dawza dieza, niisa diesharxaama:

Allah, pohma, payhamar, warh, yalh.

 

4. Nagax sanna -c, -s, -z elpashna t’iexa bagara doeshu -h nislax a cunna xalhaa -k yazdan dieza, caareh shalha -ch, -sh, -zh elpash ca khiliitarxaama. Tqa i taypa elpiin cxanaqhietarsh dolu deshnash duqha dac, sha deshniin liegarshkax ca nislax:

Baskhan, baskhara, ckhar, Iskhan, marzkhuoy, Meckhal, meckhaeldig, orckhuo, raskha, waskhal.       

 

 

IV. Ghiila elp -y niisayazdar.

 

Y elp muqa dooca –ue  (kirillan yoozanex –уь) az doeshush a  khylu,

muqaza  khadiina –i (kirillan yoozanex –й) az doeshush a khylu.  

 

1. Muqa -y daa’iman shina muqaza elpana yuqax yazdesh du:

byrsa, dyra, chyrk, lysta, qhy’u, tyka.

 

2. Duosh yyxxex dolu -y muqa delax cunna t’aexa dooghu elp muqaza khir du: ystagh, yshal.

 

3. Shi -yy cxanayazdinachex shoolagha -y daa’iman muqanig du:

oxayyllu, sxalayyzna, yyhk, yyxig.

 

4. Massuo a qheechu xoolex -y muqaza elp du, khadiina -i (й) az sanna doeshush a du. 

5. Muqaza -y massuo a muqa elp xalxaa yazdesh du sha khezachox, hunda aelcha nohchiin mattax iza klass goytu elp du. Ishta cxanaqhietarsh qhullu cuo caerca: 

ya (yaha), yaa (yaaha), yae (yaehna), ye (yeha), yee (yeeha), yi (yila), yii (yiila), yie (yiela) yo (yolu), yoo (yoolu), yoe (yoelu), yu (yuha), yuu (yuuhu), yue (yuecu), yuo (yuoha), yy (yylu).

 

C’erdeshniin masalash: yalhuo, yay, yett, yeeqhoe’a, yist, yooma, yuoj, yuort, yurt.

 

5-a. I baxaniex oersiin yoozano wayna marzdina -е, -ё, -ю, -юь, -я, -яь metta -ye (yee), -yo/-yoe (-yoo), -yu (-yuu), -yy, -ya (-yaa), -yae yazdo :

dxayazdina, dxayella, dxayoolu, dxayoehu, dxayuuzhu, dxayyllu, yax, yaett’a, yehk, yoex, yuq, yyx.

 

6. Muqa -a, -e, -o, -u t’iexa muqaza -y yazdo -ay, -ey, -oy, -uy boohu shalha’aeznash (diftongash) qhullush:

day, gay, lay, say, leyta, weyta, soy, thoy, xoy, berzaloy, t’emaloy, buy, duy, kuy, nuy, tuy.

 

7. Muqa y-na a, i-na a t’iexa muqaza -y ca yazdo, hunda aelcha, caara cynca shalha’az (diftong) ca qhullu, ysh dahlo:

byysa buesa, syyrie suerie, diycar diicar, siy sii. 

 

 

V. Qheechaareh tardella aeznash niisayazdar.

 

1. Nohchiin deshnashkax -w xalhaa cqaa’a -o ca yazdo, daa’iman -a yazdo: bjaw, daw, gawr, ghawgha, jaw, kaw, lawza, qawla, sawsa, shawda, tawha, thaw, wawhatar, xawsa, zawza, zhjaw. 

 

2. Shiekuonex -aew, -ew, -oew, -oy khezachox massanxa -ew yazdo:

oewxaza, oyxaza, ewxaza; 

bjaewnash, bjoewnash, bjoynash, bjewnash;

chxaewrag, chxoewrag, chxoyrag, chxewrag;

doewnie, doynie, dewnie; 

jaewzhina, joewzhina, joyzhina, jewzhina;

qoewlina, qoylina, qewlina;

soewsina, soysina, sewsina;

woewza, woyza, wewza; 

xaewda, xoewda, xoyda, xewda;

zhjaewnash, zhjoewnash, zhjoynash, zhjewnash.

 

Tidamie ieca:

Qaestina shi duosh du ewla – yurt, oyla – esdar.

 

3. Dja ca yazdo, dxa yazdo.

 

VI. Nohchiin doocu muqaza elpash niisayazdar.

 

Nohchiin mattax wayna ma kha’ara f elp dac. Ishtta nohchiin mattax oersiichuh tera olu v a dac, jarbuoyn «uaw» elpah tera heza nohchiin v.

 

Cundella:

 

1. Nohchiin deshnashkax -w yazdo, tqa t’e’iecnachu deshnashkax -v yazdo:  waz, vaaza, wala, val (damba), wadar, viedar.

 

2. T’e’iecnachu deshnashkax bien ca yazdo -ffabrik, fanatizm, faneera, fantaazi, faara, fartuk, farfor, fason, faa’un, fashizm, ferma, film, firma, floora, flot, , flaega, fookus, fond, foneema, fontan, format, formaaci, formul, fosfar, front, fudbol.

 

 

 

Ishta yu aezniin buht’ex (fonetikan principex) qhoellina yolu hoqhu nohchiin yoozan latiiniin versin elpash niisayazdaran, niisadiesharan a baquonash. Qhiyolu deshadaaquoyn buht’ex yolu baquonash kirillan yozanex khillarsh yu cqachunna, khiicamash boocush.

 

Sulimangheera Sharpudi wuoj Dzhambuolat.  – 2012 sho.

Ссылка на «Латинскую версию чеченского алфавита».

 


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